He believed that the person's or animal's drive or motivation was a key factor in behavior. Consequences that reinforce the desired behavior are arranged to follow the desired behavior (e.g. OVERVIEW OF THEORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR & THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT APPLICATIONS TO SOCIAL WORK GENERALIST PRACTICE The following is a very general outline summarizing the theories covered in the NCSSS foundation classes of SSS 571: Human Behavior & the Social Environment. The needs of that time were different from the modern age. of a model or theory. Behaviorism: grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. In his mind there was no difference between human and animal behavior. The theory of planned behavior adds to the theory of reasoned action the concept of perceived control over the opportunities, resources, and skills necessary to perform a behavior. Critical Theory. It favors instead the observable, knowable impacts of behavior. Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. General theories and models. Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. ', Eros: in Freud’s theory, the self-preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species. Structuralism: early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic components, or ‘structures,’ of “conscious” experiences. As we know psychology is a mental and behavior study. Behaviorist philosophy dominated psychology from the 1920s through the 1960s. Each may affect or be affected by either of the other two. According to the Cerebral research, there are three centers inside the brain. (Hockenbury, 5) Editor's note - developed by William James. Habits are connections between stimuli and responses. (Collin, 211). Behavioral theories are used to predict the way that a person or group of people will react to a certain situation. Behavioral theory is based on the belief that behavior is learned. But the primary benefit of an accurate theory is the development of a successful intervention approach. why individuals and communities behave the way they do. Jung’s Theory: people are motivated by a more general ‘psychological energy’ that pushes them to achieve psychological growth, self-realization, ‘psychic wholeness’ and harmony. Therefore the individual has to learn the correct or acceptable behavior. The brain and its composition have been through a lot of evolution till date. Rationalization TrapReactance TheoryReasoned Action, see Planned Behavior TheoryRealistic Conflict TheoryRecency EffectReciprocity NormRegret TheoryReinforcement-Affect TheoryRelative Deprivation TheoryRelationship Dissolution, see Terminating RelationshipsRepresentativeness HeuristicRepulsion Hypothesis Restraint BiasRisk PreferenceRisky Shift PhenomenonRoles Most fundamental defense mechanism. The Law of Readiness suggested that a person or animal could develop a series of responses to reach a particular goal. Learning theories are most often associated with behavioral approaches . Theoretical Tradition: None. (Hockenbury, 401), Transference: the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient’s life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred to the psychoanalyst. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement .Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Classical conditioning is a learning process in which an association is made between two stimuli. Social learning theory. Tagged with: list of behavioral theories. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of his or her leadership success. This behavior-focused approach provides real marketing potential. Ginott’s method is about a teacher being a facilitator … Some psychologists might delve into matters of the unconscious or refer to aspects of humanity that are wholly internal and do not display outward characteristics.Behaviorism neglects this definition of psychology. Many therapists don't tie themselves to any one approach. Health behavior models and theories help to explain . Does not take place on a single occasion. (Kleinman, 7), The history (of the study of behavior) is built upon the theories and discoveries of successive generations, with many of the older theories remaining relevant to contemporary psychologists. Psychological behaviorism developed during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. (Bamford, 11/1/10), Thanatos: in Freud’s theory, the death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions. Its practitioner, a psychologist, may be a specialist in behavioral, social or cognitive science. • Understand the nature of evidence about the relative effectiveness of theory-based interventions. Module 5. Most general behavior theories argue there is a link between reinforcement and emotion, for example, Staats' (1996) A-R-D model, which proposes that stimuli serving as reinforcers (R) have simultaneous attitudinal (A) value (can elicit emotion) and discriminative stimulus (D) functions (can serve as a cue for approach). The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) started as the Theory of Reasoned Action in 1980 to predict an individual's intention to engage in a behavior at a specific time and place. Here I am writing a list of theories … A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable. They are used in the sciences of psychology and sociology for different purposes. (Berger, 34), Evolutionary Psychology: the application of principles of "evolution," including "natural selection," to explain psychological processes and phenomena. (Hockenbury, 401), Ego: in Freud’s theory, the ‘partly conscious’ rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world. Here I am writing a list of theories on behaviors. (Hockenbury, 403), Freudian Personality Structures: according to Freud, 'psychological energy' evolves to form three basic structures of personality - the "id," the "ego," and the "superego." He focused to provide a view of psychology’s practical applications. (Hockenbury, 403), Projection: the attribution of one’s own unacceptable urges or qualities to others. Also referred to as 'behavior theory. Conditional Positive Regard: the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to to others. Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning; meaning associations are made between events that occur together. Behavioral Theories Behaviorists define learning as the relatively permanent change in behavior as a consequence of experience or practice, and the term “learning theory” is often associated with the behavioral view (Huitt & Hummel, 2006). Source: pc-freak.net. So, this would mean that people can be trained to become leaders. The theory of classical conditioning was introduced by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov. ‘Behaviorism’ is no exception. Cognitive behavioral play therapy is commonly used with children. Developmental theories focus on how behavior changes and stays the same across the life cycle. So you can know Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. (Hockenbury, 408), Rationalism: the idea that knowledge derives from reason without recourse to the senses. It is no longer maintained and may now be outdated. (Collin, 105), Collective Unconscious: in Jung’s theory, the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas. Conflict Theory. This outline is only a summary of highlights; … 1. They often have both loose andstrict meanings. (Hockenbury, 403). (Hockenbury, 7-8) Insists that only observable behavior should form the object of study, as this can be witnessed, described, and measured in objective terms. Key proponents include Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Malcolm Knowles. Human behavior, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity throughout human life. (Collin, 340) Emphasizes the importance of "observational learning," conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, “self-efficacy” beliefs, and “reciprocal determinism.” (Hockenbury, 416) Editor's note - developed by Albert Bandura. He felt that behaviors that were positively reinforced through praise, treats or good grades would continue, while negative behaviors that were unrewarded would diminish. And different theories focus more on one type of behavior over the other. Instead, … Operant conditioning methods are based on Watson's behaviorist theories. September 7, 2012, zubair, 1 Comment. With classical conditioning, two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response. Sociology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. The social identity theory explains the intergroup behavioral patterns that are perceived by individuals. Freud believed that human behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts that were almost always sexual or aggressive in nature. Behaviorism emerged early in the 20th century and became a major force in Ameri… Humanistic Psychology: school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction. Bandura posited that behavior, the environment, and the cognitive processes within an individual have a mutually interactive relationship. Human behavior, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity throughout human life. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. Functionalists also examined how psychology could be applied to areas such as "education," child rearing, and the work environment. Loosely speaking,behaviorism is an Module 5. Bryn Mawr College: Behaviourism--The Early Years, TIP Database: Connectionism (E. Thorndike), TIP Database: Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull), TIP Database: Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner). Integrative or holistic therapy. Psychological behaviorism developed during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. And sometimes multiple meanings of eachtype. Behavioral finance is a famous field of finance that suggests theories based on human psychology (financial psychology or behavioural economics) in order to explain the concept of stock market anomalies, which includes extreme rise and fall in the prices of stocks. The theory emphasizes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. Archetypes: in Jung’s theory, the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious. Scientists can test the theory through emp… These theories provide an explanation of how experience can change what we do. And now research on behaviors. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Thorndike believed that learning was a result of associations that were formed between a stimulus and response. Derived from ‘psuke-soul’ or ‘breath’ and ‘logos,’ ‘knowledge,’ psychology is the scientific study of the mental discipline and behaviors. ', Behaviorist: a person who believes in behaviorism. The Contingency Theory is a class of the behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. The ensuing behavior reduces the drive and is thus negatively reinforced. Humans, like other animal species, have a typical life course that consists of successive phases of growth, each characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological, and behavioral features. B. F. Skinner’s Ideas. About the Three Types of Behavioral Learning. (Hockenbury, 403), Rationalization: justifying one’s actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than consciously acknowledging one’s true motives or desires. One has to be careful with “ism” words. Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. The theory was intended to explain all behaviors over which people have the ability to exert self-control. (Hockenbury, 408) Jung believed that the archetypes are layers of inherited memory, and they constitute the entirety of the human experience. Psychoanalytic Theory: a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. Theory of Mind, Empathy, Mindblindness Summary: Theory of mind refers to the ability to perceive the unique perspective of others and its influence on their behavior – that is, other people have unique thoughts, plans, and points of view that are different than yours. Observational learning is learning by observing others. Ivan Pavlov made important contributions to behavior therapy by discovering classical conditioning, or associative learning. The behaviorists felt that it was impossible to study mental processes objectively, but found it relatively easy to observe and measure behavior. 4 Motivation and Individual Differences. Behavior therapy. Instead of a unidirectional stimulus-response relationship, these three variables all affect one another. (Hockenbury, 401), Free Association: therapeutic mechanism that emphasizes the resolution of unconscious conflicts. Also form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior. (Hockenbury, 551). (LearningTheories, 17) Editor's note - developed by Craig Rogers. All behaviors were based on nerve pathways that were conditioned by stimuli and responses. Theories and models are used in program planning to understand and explain health behavior and to guide the identification, development, and implementation of interventions. Famous Psychologists and Their Theories. (Berger, 43) Focuses on the mental processes involved in learning and knowing, and how the mind actively organizes experiences. Relapse. (Schunk, 5). It tries to show that not all are not born leaders but there are particular behaviors that can be learnt to become leaders. Disappointment. Dollard and Miller attempted to reconcile the conflicting ideas in behavioral and psychoanalytic theories by reformulating Freudian concepts in behavioral terms. But the word has a very different meaning in the realm of science when researchers are talking about empirical research that is back by scientific evidence. (Hockenbury, 407) Jung believed every person’s purpose in life was to have his or her conscious and unconscious become fully integrated, so that they could become their ‘true self.’ (Kleinman, 134) Editor's note - developed by Carl Jung. (Hockenbury, 7) Also referred to as ‘contemporary psychoanalysis.’, Dream Analysis: the content of dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings, and motivations. (Hockenbury, 414) Also referred to as ‘unconditional love.’. (Hockenbury, 401), Reality Principle: in Freud’s theory, the capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist. (Collin, 341) Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences. Behavioral Theories Behaviorists define learning as the relatively permanent change in behavior as a consequence of experience or practice, and the term “learning theory” is often associated with the behavioral view (Huitt & Hummel, 2006). It will take creative researchers to find the nexus. In the end, the methods and goals of structuralism were simply too limited to accommodate the rapidly expanding interests of the field of psychology. Behavioral theories help us to understand our child’s behavior. Strategies. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian researcher who lived between 1849 and 1936, became famous for his relationship studies between external stimuli and salivation in dogs. theories related to health behavior change that can help planners design effective health promotion programs: socioecological, transtheoretical, and health belief. Behavioral Theories of Leadership. Much of what we know about societies, relationships, and social behavior has emerged thanks to various sociology theories. Learning Theories. Hugo Munsterbeg (1863-1916) is known as the “father of industrial psychology” and is as important for psychology students as F.W. A result may be termed as empirical, provided anybody interested may observe it later as well as measure it. Pushed out of conscious awareness into the unconscious. (Marshall, 11/3/2011), Cognitivism: grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. ', Oedipus Complex: in Freud’s theory, a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent. Each behavioural change theory or model focuses on different factors in attempting to explain behaviour change. During the 1950s, B.F. Skinner theorized that learning was the result of a change of behavior that occurred as a response to stimuli in the environment. (Schunk, 22) Concerned with investigating the adaptive functions of the mind in relation to its environment. (Hockenbury, 7-8) Insists that only obser… (Hockenbury, 403), Repression: the exclusion from consciousness of anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, or impulses. The most important assumption underlying the behavioral theory is that the leaders can be made. Clark Hull's Drive Reduction Theory of the 1940s proposed that humans and animals have a hierarchy of needs that are activated based on drive and stimulation. (Hockenbury, 551) The patient resists recovery and deliberately undermines the therapeutic process. Theories Project; Content on this page is provided for reference purposes only. (Ramachandran, 134) Also referred to as ‘ego defense mechanisms.’, Displacement: emotional impulses redirected to a substitute object or person, usually one less threatening or dangerous. He suggested that an organism could respond in a number of different ways to a stimulus depending internal conditions such as inhibitions or external factors such as the reward. 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